High Resistance Voltmeter

The full-scale deflection of the universal high-input-resistance voltmeter circuit shown in the figure depends on the function switch position as follows:
(a) 5V dc on position 1
(b) 5V ac rms in position 2
(c) 5V peak ac in position 3
(d) 5V ac peak-to-peak in position 4
The circuit is basically a voltage-to-current converter. The design procedure is as follows:
Calculate RI according to the application from one of the following equations:
(a) dc voltmeter: RIA = full-scale EDC/IFS
(b) rms ac voltmeter (sine wave only): RIB = 0.9 full-scale ERMS/ IFS
(c) Peak reading voltmeter (sine wave only): RIC = 0.636 full-scale EPK/IFS
(d) Peak-to-peak ac voltmeter (sine wave only): RID = 0.318 full-scale EPK-TO-PK / IFS
The term IFS in the above equations refers to meter’s full-scale deflection current rating in amperes.
It must be noted that neither meter resistance nor diode voltage drops affects meter current.
A high-input-resistance op-amp, a bridge rectifier, a microammeter, and a few other discrete components are all that are required to realise this versatile circuit. This circuit can be used for measurement of dc, ac rms, ac peak, or ac peak-to-peak voltage by simply changing the value of the resistor connected between the inverting input terminal of the op-amp and ground. The voltage to be measured is connected to non-inverting input of the op-amp.

High Resistance Voltmeter

                TABLE I                                                                       
     Position 1 of Function Switch
     Edc input    Meter Current
         5.00V            44 µA
         4.00V            34 µA
         3.00V            24 µA
         2.00V            14 µA
         1.00V             4 µA

              TABLE II
     Position 2 of Function Switch
      Erms input    Meter Current
         5V                 46 µA
         4V                 36 µA
         3V                 26 µA
         2V                 18 µA
         1V                 10 µA
               TABLE III
     Position 3 of Function Switch
      EPk input      Meter Current
           5V peak             46 µA
           4V peak             36 µA
           3V peak             26 µA
           2V peak             16 µA
           1V peak             6 µA

                  TABLE IV
     Position 4 of Function Switch
      EPk-To-Pk              Meter Current
      5V peak to peak         46 µA
      4V peak to peak         36 µA
      3V peak to peak         26 µA
      2V peak to peak         16 µA
      1V peak to peak         7 µA

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